Archive for the ‘fine motor skills’ Category

Announcement: Fine Motor Activities: to help develop the skills for the job of life.

Fine Motor Activities are the games / tasks we play with our little ones to encourage the development and skills of their fingers, hands and arms- their ‘fine motor skills’. Fine Motor Skills include doing ANYTHING that uses small hand and finger movements, so it is clear that it is very important for children to develop these skills. For different reasons some kids struggle with aspects of their development. Fine motor activities can be incorporated in so many ways throughout kids daily routines to give them opportunities to practise a variety of fine motor skills.

Fine motor activities may be fun games to help strengthen fingers/hands, they may be games that help children use the fingers that grasp a pencil or scissors, or they may be fine motor activities that help our kids to learn living skills like dressing themselves, learning the different fasteners or control of utensils.

A vital ingredient when using and introducing fine motor activities, like all tasks that may challenge, require concentration and effort, from our children- is patience and plenty of encouragement and praise….. these characteristics will be invaluable…. Different kids will pick up the various skills in different time frames, plenty of exposure to a variety of fun fine motor activities will enhance their learning. Skills are acquired gradually with lots of practise….

You won’t have to look far around the home to find fine motor activites and materials filled with benefits, a taste of these include -the peg container, squeezing pegs will strengthen those pencil gripping/ scissor cutting, button manipulating finger muscles. My kids love using an old paint brush dipped in water to write on the deck. Or using a stick in the sand to draw a picture. Who doesn’t love playing with water- sqeezing toys, pouring, putting lids on/off jars, water sprayers, all these can all be incorporated into this non-threatening, fun activity and skills skills skills are being enhanced. Dress-ups, cooking, craft, page turning while reading etc. 

I guess one thing that we are trying to achieve often is changing roles a little- we are teaching our little one lots of new skills and gently, slowly, they will do a little more- a little more self feeding, a little more undressing, a little more drawing and drawing things that are a little more recognisable( even if it is a stripe or a dot…). The steps are gradual, but so rewarding….

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Right or Left Handed? Some great fine motor activities to promote ‘preferred’ hand!

Most children start to have a preferred hand between 2 and 4 years. A lot by 3 years and the majority by school age. It is not unusual for children to still swap hands during activities. This may be due to tiredness or simply part of the development process.

A strategy to use to determine which hand is the ‘preferred’ or ‘dominant’ hand is to offer items in the CENTRE for your little one to choose. Items may be spoons, pencils, toys, drinks, snacks, clothing, books, scissors, sticker sheets etc. Your child will need to choose which hand they use.

It is extremely beneficial to practise lots of two-handed activities to help your child develop hand preference. Some fine motor activities that are fun and easy to practise at home include:

– catch/ throw/ bat/ bounce/ balls

– cutting out with scissors

– duplo/ lego, pull apart etc

– craft/ drawing , stickers, stamping, stencils, tracing, glue stick activities

– cooking activities/ opening containers, stirring, pouring into bowl, cracking eggs.

– make believe- washing up, pushing dolls pram, work bench

– hammering/  screw driver

– lacing cards/ threading beads

– undoing/ doing up fasteners, zippers, lids, buttons, press studs, clips on dress ups, hand bags etc.

– balloon games, hitting and catching with two hands

– ‘bubbles’

– washing car (or anything around the yard!)

– sand pit games, bucket and shovel etc.

It will become clear which hand your child  ‘prefers’ to use and it is recommended they are then encouraged to regularly use this hand for fine motor activities/ everyday activities.

Try to encourage your child to consistently use this hand – describe it as their ‘doing hand’ and the other one as their ‘helping hand’.

If your child begins an activity with one hand it is recommended they complete the activity with the same hand. Even if it means a break is required.

Activities for Pencil Grip Development – Using a Vertical Surface

In a previous article (see Pencil
Grip Development
), I mentioned I would cover some exercises that could be
used to strengthen the muscles required to develop a good pencil grip. The
exercise below is one that would fall into the first category I mentioned in
that article – it will strengthen the muscles that hold your body up, and
control the arm.

Most little ones (and adults too for that
matter) do the majority of their work on a horizontal surface – generally a
table, or the floor. A very simple way to add strengthening work into their
everyday craft activities is to have them use a vertical surface instead.

This is extremely simple to put into
practice – either through the use of an easel, or by sticking a sheet of paper
onto a wall or window.

Obviously, this can then be used for any
number of activities – use paints, markers, crayons, stamps, stickers etc –
anything that your little one enjoys will be just as much, or more, fun on a
vertical surface – sometimes the novelty value will even add to the kid’s

“Painting” a fence or a wall is another
good way to get kids working on a vertical surface. Give your little one a
bucket of water, a paintbrush, and point them at the surface they can work on,
and watch as they create a water masterpiece (obviously, this is best done

Working on a vertical surface will assist
in a couple of ways. It will help to strengthen the shoulder muscles, which
play a large part in controlling the whole arm movements that are common in an
early pencil grip. As a result of the hand position required to work on a
vertical surface, it also encourages strength in the hand and wrist.

As with any exercise programs, repetition is the
key to success, so make sure the activities are exciting and fun for the kids,
and you will see the strength and skill develop as a part of their everyday

Pencil Grip Development

Children develop their pencil grip at
different times, though it generally does follow a pattern. 

Generally your little one
will firstly grip their pencil with a “fisted grip” (see image 1 below). During this stage children
use whole arm movements to draw, most of the movement comes from the shoulder.

Image 1 – Fisted Grip

As kid’s shoulders, arms and hands become
stronger they begin to grip their pencil in the palm of their hand with palm
facing down. There is now more elbow movement when drawing.


Image 2 – Palm Down

 The next way a child holds their pencil is
called an ‘immature 5 finger grasp’, (it is quite normal for a four year old to
hold a pencil this way). There is more wrist movement used for colouring and
generally the fingers grip the pencil very tightly. 

Most children 5-7 years, grip a pencil with
a mature three finger grip. As your child’s hand and fingers become stronger,
independent finger movements will be used when drawing.

Image 3 – three finger grip

Kids will swap their
grip around as their muscles tire. 

Fine motor activities to encourage the development of a good pencil grip are largely strengthening exercizes, and most fall into the following 2 categories:

1. Activities to strengthen the muscles that hold your body up, and control the arm


2. Activities to strengthen the muscles that control drawing movements, and those that grip the pencil.

My next few articles will cover some fine motor activities that focus on strengthening these muscles, which you can use to assist your little one with their pencil grip development.